MAHZOR, livre contenant les prieres pour les fetes de l'annee liturgique, en hAbreu, manuscrit enlumine sur velin.

Lot Number 62
Author
Title MAHZOR, livre contenant les prieres pour les fetes de l'annee liturgique, en hAbreu, manuscrit enlumine sur velin.
Year Published 1490
Place Printed Toscane, probablement Florence,
Printed By
Description MAHZOR, livre contenant les prieres pour les fetes de l'annee liturgique, en hAbreu, manuscrit enlumine sur velin. [Toscane, probablement Florence, annees 1490] 168 x 125 mm, ii + 442 feuillets: 1-1210, 138, 14-1510, 168, 1710, 188, 1910, 208, 2110 (feuillet x blanc), 22-4510, apparemment complet, reclames au dernier verso de plusieurs cahiers, quelques signatures encore visibles, pagination tous les 10 feuillets, gardes volantes incluses, 20 lignes de texte en Acriture semi-cursive italienne A l'encre noire, avec points-voyelles, rubriques en caracteres plus petits generalement en rouge ou en bleu, premiers mots en Acriture hAbraAque carree, les prieres de Yom Kippour rehaussees A l'or, les panneaux avec les incipit en or bruni sur fond rouge, vert ou bleu, illustrations des textes comprenant la Matsa et le Maror, FRONTISPICE AVEC BORDURES A PLEINE PAGE COMPORTANT DES MADAILLONS AVEC DES TASTES DE PROFIL, DES VIGNETTES DE PAYSAGES ET LES ARMOIRIES DU COMMANDITAIRE, deux ouvertures avec le meme style de bordure et une bordure florale sur deux cotes avec le fond laisse vierge, DEUX PETITES MINIATURES, DEUX A DEMI-PAGE ET QUATRE A PLEINE PAGE, deux d'entre elles avec bordures A pleine page integrant les armoiries (infimes pertes de pigment ou d'or, quelques taches sans gravite, quelques marges froissees, legere decoloration de l'encre en particulier au dernier feuillet). Reliure italienne de la seconde moitiA du XVIe siecle en maroquin brun sur ais, plats richement ornes d'un decor dore d'entrelacs et de rinceaux et peint A la cire en rouge et jaune, avec fers speciaux dont des licornes, blason central sur les deux plats, tranches dorees et ciselees (dos habilement refait, sans les fermoirs ni les bouillons, quelques pertes de pigment). PROVENANCE: Les armoiries au f. 3 sont d'azur au lion rampant d'or tenant un calice ardent accompagne d'un soleil. Aux ff. 169v et 240, le lion est flanque d'un croissant de lune et d'une Atoile ou d'un soleil, disposition comparable aux armoiries de la famille Ambron. Au f. 284, le blason dans la marge infArieure porte un groupe de sept feuilles representant probablement les herbes ameres de la Pessah plutot que les armes d'un des proprietaires d'origine. Les armoiries portees par les familles juives en Italie n'Ataient souvent que des compositions de symboles traditionnels juifs et par consequent souvent variables, rendant difficile toute identification precise. La reliure du XVIe siecle est frappee, dans le medaillon central, de deux lions rampants affrontes flanquant un palmier, association assez frequente chez un grand nombre de familles juives d'Italie de cette periode, parmi lesquelles les familles florentine ou toscane Tedeschi ou Tedesco (en hAbreu 'Traddiz') et Uzielli. Quatre petits trous visibles dans le medaillon central indiquent que ces armoiries furent A une Apoque occultees par l'un des proprietaires ulterieurs. Au debut du XVIIe siecle, le manuscrit se trouvait toujours en Italie, probablement en Amilie-Romagne. Il fut alors vise et repertorie par les censeurs Fra Hippolyte de Ferrare en 1601, puis Camillo Jaghel en 1611 (?), qui signerent sur le dernier feuillet. Hippolyte de Ferrare est aujourd'hui connu en qualite de censeur pour quinze manuscrits, entre 1601 et 1621 ; on le retrouve actif A Modene en 1601. Camillo Jaghel apparaAt quant A lui en tant que censeur A vingt-deux reprises entre 1611 et 1629 (?) ; sa presence est attestee A Reggio, Modene et Urbino (voir W. Popper, Censorship of Hebrew Books, 1969, sans compter le present manuscrit). Une note jointe indique que le manuscrit fut achete A Francfort avant 1908. Il est mentionne dans l'ouvrage d'Adler Jewish Travellers, publie en 1930. Il appartenait alors A Edmond Bicart-SAe, A Paris, puis fut transmis par descendance A ses hAritiers. CONTENU: Mahzor, contenant les prieres des fetes de l'annee liturgique, A savoir : la benediction du Nom du Seigneur f. 3 ; les cents benedictions A reciter quotidiennement f. 4 ; benediction du Seigneur f. 12 ; la recitation du Shema et les prieres A reciter avant de s'endormir f. 25v, f. 42 ; prieres pour le Shabbat f. 51 ; benediction pour la nouvelle lune f. 82v ; pour Hanoukka, avec des extraits du Livre d'Esther f. 109 ; prieres A reciter avant la lecture du Megillah f. 121v ; pour le Pessah f. 130 ; avant le jeune de Tammouz f. 209v, suivi par des prieres pour le jeune du 9 av et concernant le Livre des Lamentations f. 240 suivi par des prieres et des Psaumes ; prieres pour Roch Hachana f. 261v (avec priere finale au f. 281v) ; pour Yom Kippour f. 284 (avec priere finale au f. 394), pour Sukkot f. 411, Tsam'a Nafshi, le poeme Acrit par Abraham ibn Ezra, commentateur biblique espagnol du XIIe siecle, son nom identifie en acrostiches en marge du f. 427v ; un commentaire sur la mort de Moise en hAbreu et en arameen f. 440v. ENLUMINURE: L'imposant frontispice de ce Mahzor est dans le style caracteristique de Giovanni di Giuliano Boccardi, dit Boccardino il vecchio (1460-1529), " l'un des derniers representants de l'Acge d'or de l'enluminure florentine A la Renaissance ". Boccardino executa d'importants manuscrits liturgiques A la demande de mecenes ecclesiastiques, mais travailla Agalement pour le compte de clients princiers prestigieux tels Matthias Corvin, roi de Hongrie, et Laurent le Magnifique. Les oeuvres realisees dans les annees 1490 pour ces illustres commanditaires presentent les analogies les plus frappantes avec ce manuscrit : ainsi les medaillons representant des camees et des cervides sur fond de paysage, inscrits dans un decor alternant gerbes et chutes de fleurs ainsi que des ornements typiques de la Renaissance, rappellent ceux des codices humanistes executes pour le roi de Hongrie. Parmi eux figurent notamment le Philostrate actuellement conserve A Budapest, N. Szechenyi Lib (Cod. lat. 417), ainsi que des manuscrits de devotion realises pour les Medicis, telles les Heures de Laudomia de' Medici, fille de Laurent le Magnifique (BL, Yates Thompson 30). La communaute juive de Florence fleurit au XVe siecle sous l'Atroite protection des Medicis, en particulier sous celle de Laurent le Magnifique qui encouragea ouvertement l'Apanouissement de la culture et de l'Arudition juives. Aussi n'est-il pas surprenant que des commanditaires juifs aient fait appel A des artistes qui travaillaient alors pour la cour des Medicis. Si l'on connaAt d'autres manuscrits hAbreux enlumines par des Florentins chretiens, ce Mahzor est, d'apres nos recherches, le seul qui le fut par Boccardino l'ancien. Si les premieres figures et bordures du volume, jusqu'au f. 68v, refletent le talent de Boccardino lui-meme, les miniatures suivantes ont ete realisees par des disciples ou son atelier; certaines d'entre elles, comme celles des ff. 169v, 240, 284 et 411, semblent toutefois avoir ete concues par Boccardino, puis enluminees par celui qui executa les fonds des incipit des prieres. Il semble que ce manuscrit soit reste inacheve apres la premiere serie d'enluminures, et que, ulterieurement, une main moins habile ait realise les fonds des cartouches ou des bandeaux, qui n'avaient pas ete decores A l'origine, pour certains titres ou incipit mineurs. Les plus ambitieux de ses ajouts sont les figures tenant la Matsa (pain azyme) et le Maror (herbes ameres), illustrant des passages de la Pessah Haggadah (ff. 135v & 136). Ces figures tenant les aliments sont caracteristiques de l'iconographie ashkenaze et pourraient indiquer l'origine de cet artiste. Ce dernier a Agalement pu realiser la sphere armillaire et le 'David' Acrit en hAbreu qui flanquent le camee execute par Boccardino au f. 12. Nous tenons A remercier tres vivement le Dr. Ilana Tahan pour son aide precieuse dans la redaction de cette notice. MAHZOR, festival prayerbook, in Hebrew, illuminated manuscript on vellum [Tuscany, probably Florence, c.1490s]. 168 x 125mm, ii + 442 leaves: 1-1210, 138, 14-1510, 168, 1710, 188, 1910, 208, 2110(x blank), 22-4510, APPARENTLY COMPLETE, catchwords on final versos of many gatherings, some signatures still visible, foliation every 10 leaves includes front flyleaves and is followed here, 20 lines of Italian semi-cursive script in black ink, with vowel points, rubrics in smaller script mostly in red or blue, Hebrew square script for initial words, prayers for Yom Kippur highlighted in gold, initial word panels throughout in burnished gold on red, green or blue grounds, some embellished with marginal sprays, text illustrations including the Matzah and Maror, FRONTISPIECE WITH FULL-PAGE BORDER INCORPORATING MEDALLIONS WITH PROFILE HEADS, LANDSCAPE VIGNETTES AND THE COAT OF ARMS OF THE ORIGINAL OWNER, two openings with similar single panel borders and a two-sided floral border on a vellum ground, TWO SMALL, TWO HALF-PAGE AND FOUR FULL-PAGE MINIATURES, two of them with full-page borders incorporating coats of arms, edges gilt and gauffered (occasional light losses of pigment or gold, some unobtrusive smudging or offsetting, a few marginal creases, some fading of ink, particularly to final leaf). Mid 16th-century Italian gold-tooled dark brown goatskin over thin wooden boards with strapwork painted in red and yellow, both covers with central cartouche with coat of arms, elaborately decorated with a unicorn and rabbit, hatched leaf and flower tools, solid dots and foliate rolls, evidence of two fore-edge clasps, four nail holes at edge of cartouche, (rebacked, repaired at board edges, paint rubbed, clasps missing). PROVENANCE: The coat of arms on f.3 is azure, a rampant lion or holding a flaming chalice and sun; on ff.169v and 240, the lion is flanked by a crescent moon and a sun or star. These arms have some resemblance to the Ambron family. On f.284 the shield in the lower border carries a group of seven leaves and may represent the bitter herbs of the Passover feast rather than the charge of an original owner. Coats of arms used by Jewish families in Italy were inventions, often using traditional Jewish symbols and often variable, making certain identification difficult. The 16th-century binding has a central medallion with two affronted rampant lions flanking a palm tree, combined elements featuring in the arms of a number of families in Italy, including the Tedesco/Tedeschi and Uzielli in Tuscany. At some date these arms were apparently regarded as too associable with an earlier owner as four small holes indicate that they were once obscured. The manuscript was still in Italy, perhaps in Emilia Romagna, early in the 17th century when it was seen by the censors Fra Hippolytus of Ferrara and Camillo Jagel who signed the final leaf, in 1601 and ?1611. Hippolytus of Ferrara is recorded as censor for 15 manuscripts, between 1601 and 1621 and was known to be in Modena in 1601; Jagel appears as censor in 22 instances between 1611 and ?1629, and recorded in Reggio, Modena and Urbino, see W. Popper, Censorship of Hebrew Books, 1969, not including the present manuscript. A loosely inserted note records the purchase of the manuscript in Frankfurt before 1908. It was published in 1930, in Adler's Jewish Travellers, when it was owned by E. Bicart-SAe in Paris; by descent to the present owners. CONTENT: Mahzor, containing prayers for the entire liturgical year, including: blessing of the Name of the Lord f.3, a hundred blessings to be recited daily f.4, blessing for the Lord f.12, the recitation of Shema and prayers to be said before retiring to bed f.25v, f.42, for the Sabbath f.51, for the blessing for a new moon f.82v, for Hanukkah with extracts from the Book of Esther f.109, prayers to be said before reading the Megillah f.121v, for Passover f.130, before the fast of Tammuz f.209v, followed by prayers for the fast of the Ninth of Av and relating to the Book of Lamentations, f.240 followed by prayers and Psalms, prayers for Rosh Hashanah f.261v (closing prayer f.281v), for Yom Kippur f.284 (closing prayer f.394), for Sukkoth f.411, Tsam'a Nafshi, the 12th-century poem by Abraham ibn Ezra, the author's name picked out acrostically in the margin f.427v; commentary on the death of Moses in Hebrew and Aramaic, f.440v. ILLUMINATION: The imposing frontispiece of this Mahzor is in the characteristic style of Giovanni di Giuliano Boccardi, known as Boccardino il vecchio (1460-1529) - 'one of the last representatives of the golden age of Florentine renaissance illumination'. As well as working on grand liturgical manuscripts for ecclesiastic patrons, Boccardino counted Matthias Corvinus and Lorenzo il magnifico among his princely clients, and it is in his works of the 1490s for these that the closest analogies with the present manuscript are found: the cameo heads and landscapes with deer interspersed among flower-sprays and renaissance motifs of the borders can all be matched in humanistic codices made for the Hungarian king, such as the Philostratus (Budapest, N. Szechenyi Lib, Cod. lat. 417), as well as devotional manuscripts for the de' Medici, such as the Hours of Laudomia de' Medici, Lorenzo's daughter (London, BL, Yates Thompson 30). The Jewish community of Florence flourished in the 15th-century, their position closely linked to the fortunes of the de' Medici. Lorenzo il magnifico acted as a protector and encouraged Jewish scholarship and scholars: it is unsurprising that Jewish patrons called upon the services of artists who worked for him for their own luxury manuscripts. Whereas there are other Hebrew manuscripts illuminated by Christian Florentines, this Mahzor is the only example we know illuminated by Boccardino. While the first miniatures and borders in the volume, up to f.68v, have every appearance of the accomplished work of Boccardino himself, subsequent miniatures were completed by followers or members of his workshop; some, for example those of ff.169v, 240, 284 and 411 seem to have been designed by Boccardino and then painted by the illuminator otherwise responsible for the decorated coloured grounds of initial word panels. The illumination of the manuscript appears to have been left incomplete after the first campaign under Boccardino, and a slightly later and less professional hand provided panel backgrounds or shaded banderoles around the titles or initial words that had not been decorated originally. The most ambitious of this artist's additions are the figures holding the Matzah (unleavened bread) and Maror (bitter herb) that illustrate the passages in the Passover Haggadah (ff.135v & 136). The iconography, where figures hold the foods, is an Ashkenazi characteristic and may indicate the origin of this artist. Perhaps he was also responsible for the addition of the armillary sphere and 'David' written in Hebrew that flanks the cameo head by Boccardino on folio 12. The subjects of the full-page miniatures are as follows: f. 82 David praying for a new moon f. 130 Raising of the Seder basket, miniature opening prayers for Passover f. 240 Ark of the Covenant, with men teaching in the synagogue below, full-page border incorporating roundels including arms flanked by peacocks f. 284 Cantor pointing to the Book of Life, miniature opening Yom Kippur, with full-page border incorporating roundels including arms flanked by putti. The subjects of the half-page miniatures, small miniatures and borders are as follows: f.3 frontispiece full-page border incorporating medallions containing profile heads, vignettes showing deer in landscapes and the coat of arms of the original owner flanked by putti f.12 headpiece and similar panel border with a profile of David, his name in Hebrew and an armillary sphere f.14v similar floral border f. 42 a couple in bed f.51 the Sabbath meal f.68 Moses holding the tablets of the law f.169 coat of arms flanked by angels f. 411 the Ark of the Covenant and cantors Bibliography: Elkan N. Adler, Jewish Travellers, London: 1930 and 2004, plates I, VI. Rachel Wischnitzer, 'The Unicorn in Christian and Jewish Art', Historia Judaica, v. 13, 1951, pp. 141-156, the present manuscript cited on pp. 150-1. Discussing the unicorn as a reprsentation of the final redemption of Israel she cites its presence in the border of folio 240; the tool of a unicorn also appears on the binding. For Boccardino il vecchio see A. Garzelli, Miniatura fiorentina del rinascimento, 1440-1525: Un primo censimento, i (Florence, 1985), pp. 80-81, 341-6 Dizionario biografico dei miniatori, ed. Milvia Bollati, 2004, pp. 113-116 We are extremely grateful to Dr Ilana Tahan for her help in the cataloguing of this manuscript.
Comments
References
Provenance
Estimated Price EUR 400,000.00 - 600,000.00
( USD 552,000.00 - 828,000.00 )
Actual Price EUR 1,857,000.00 ( USD 2,395,530.00 )

Search

AUCTION DETAILS

Auction House Christies
Website http://www.christies.com
Auction Name Important Books, Art Books, Manuscripts
Sale Number #3504
Auction Date May 11, 2012 - May 11, 2012
Book Images